At the end of the
course, the students should be able to:
Be able to acquaint with mineral definition and nomenclature.
Ability to understand processes on how mineral formed in the
earth crust and its composition.
Ability to identify and classify minerals into different
crystallographic system and classes.
Ability to relate minerals to its chemistry, chemical
composition, formula calculation, phase diagrams and mineral stability.
Ability to relates minerals and discuss in terms of crystal
Ability to identify minerals based on its physical
Ability to identify and classified minerals into specified groups
and classification system.
Ability to grasp the basic theories, techniques and instruments
normally used in mineral identification and analysis.
Teaching Plans / Syllabus :
Definition of mineral.
Important of mineralogy study to other fields and Mineral
Definition of mineral, Important of mineral
study to scientist and engineer. Mineralogy in other fields
(Processing, mining, geophysics and materials)
Introduction to Earth Materials, Composition of earth crust.
Major processes and
Precipitation from a fluid,
Sublimation from a vapor
Crystallization from a
liquid, Solid - Solid reactions,
– Crystal Symmetry, Symmetry operation and Crystal morphology
Introduction to symmetry, Symmetry Operations and Elements.
Rotational Symmetry, Mirror Symmetry, Center of Symmetry
of Symmetry Operations
Steno’s Law : The angle between crystal faces
Crystallographic Axes and Unit Cells.
2, 3 and 4
Axial Ratios, Parameters,
Crystallographic Calculations, Miller and Bravais Indices,
Crystal Form, Zones, Crystal System, Class and Habit; and
Intercepts of Crystal Faces (Weiss Parameters)
Miller Indices and
Miller Bravais Indices.
Crystal Forms - General
Forms and Special Forms, Open Forms and Closed Forms, , Form
Symbols, and Forms, Zones and Zone Symbols
Vectorial Properties :
Continuous and Discontinuous Vectorial Properties, Crystal Habit
and polymorph. Hermann-Mauguin
The 32 Crystal Classes, e.g
Triclinic system, Monoclinic system, Orthorhombic System,
Tetragonal System etc.
X-rays and the Production
Characteristic X-ray Spectra
X-ray Diffraction and
The X-ray Powder Method
5 and 6
Mineral Chemistry and
Calculation, Mineral Stability and Phase Diagrams; and Crystal
Coupled Substitution, Solid
Solution, Exsolution, Graphical Representation of mineral
Composition. Compositional Variation in Minerals, oxides & S.G
calculation and. Formula calculation
Phase Diagrams, Definitions
– System- Phase - Component
The Phase Rule, Equilibrium
and Thermodynamics, Solid - Solid Reactions.
Atoms : Protons
Bohr Atom : Planck,
Chemical Bonding, Ionic
Bonds, Covalent Bonds, Metallic Bonds
7, **, 9
mid semester break
Physical Properties of
Physical Properties of
Crystal Habit - Individual
Crystals and Groups of Distinct
Cleavage, Parting, and Fracture
Density (Specific Gravity)
Streak , Luster - Metallic and Non-metallic
Magnetism, Other Properties -
Tables for Identification
Luster - Metallic or
Submetallic and Nonmetallic.
(Silicate and non-silicate (metallic minerals) and mineral
minerals are classified and naming
Berzelian classification system for minerals (native element,
oxide, sulphides etc.), Silicate Structures and Structural
Techniques in mineral
analysis instrumentation and Wet Analysis
Methods of Chemical
Analysis, Wet Chemical Analyses
Inductively Coupled Plasma
- Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
Spectrometry, Electron Microprobe (EMP) Analysis.
**Week 8 – Mid-semester Break (1 week)