1.

Course Code

:

EBS 209

2.

Course Title

:

Mineralogy

3.

Course Unit

:

3

4.

Type of Course

:

Core

 

5.

 

Name of Staffs :

 

No

Name

Staff ID.

1.

Dr. Kamar Shah Ariffin

AE50182

 

 

6.

 

Course Synopsis :

To prepare student with a broad and fundamental knowledge of minerals, which is a major constituent of earth material (rock and ore), and formed in various geological environments. Emphasis are given in understanding of mineral definition and characteristics in terms of formation phenomenon, crystallography, mineral chemistry, physical properties, classification system and groups, including mineral identification and analysis techniques.

 

7.

Contribution of Assessment :

 

Assessment Methods:

%

Test (2)

10

Quiz

8

Assignment

12

Final Examination

70

             Total

100

Final Examination :   70%

 

Coursework  : 30%

 

8.

 

Course Outcomes (CO) :

 

At the end of the course, the students should be able to:

 

1.    Be able to acquaint with mineral definition and nomenclature.

2.    Ability to understand processes on how mineral formed in the earth crust and its composition.

3.    Ability to identify and classify minerals into different crystallographic system and classes.

4.    Ability to relate minerals to its chemistry, chemical composition, formula calculation, phase diagrams and mineral stability.

5.    Ability to relates minerals and discuss in terms of crystal chemistry concepts.

6.    Ability to identify minerals based on its physical characteristics.

7.    Ability to identify and classified minerals into specified groups and classification system.

8.    Ability to grasp the basic theories, techniques and instruments normally used in mineral identification and analysis.

 

 

9.

 

Teaching Plans / Syllabus :

 

No

Topic Contents

Teaching Weeks

 

 

 

 

1

Definition of mineral. Important of mineralogy study to other fields and Mineral formation

 

Definition of mineral, Important of mineral study to scientist and engineer. Mineralogy in other fields (Processing, mining, geophysics and materials)

Introduction to Earth Materials, Composition of earth crust.

Major processes and Conditions

 

Precipitation from a fluid, Sublimation from a vapor

Crystallization from a liquid, Solid - Solid reactions, 

Geothermal Gradient

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

2

Mineral Crystallography – Crystal Symmetry, Symmetry operation and Crystal morphology

 

Introduction to symmetry, Symmetry Operations and Elements. Rotational Symmetry, Mirror Symmetry, Center of Symmetry

Rotoinversion, Combinations of Symmetry Operations

Steno’s Law : The angle between crystal faces

Crystallographic Axes and Unit Cells.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2, 3 and 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Axial Ratios, Parameters, Crystallographic Calculations, Miller and Bravais Indices, Crystal Form, Zones, Crystal System, Class and Habit; and Polymorphs.

 

Axial Ratios, Intercepts of Crystal Faces (Weiss Parameters)

Miller Indices and Miller Bravais Indices.

 

Crystal Forms - General Forms and Special Forms, Open Forms and Closed Forms, , Form Symbols, and Forms, Zones and Zone Symbols

Vectorial Properties :  Continuous and Discontinuous Vectorial Properties, Crystal Habit and polymorph. Hermann-Mauguin (International) Symbols

The 32 Crystal Classes, e.g Triclinic system, Monoclinic system, Orthorhombic System, Tetragonal System etc.

 

X-rays and the Production of X-rays

Continuous and Characteristic X-ray Spectra

X-ray Diffraction and Bragg's Law

The X-ray Powder Method

Crystallographic calculation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 and 6

 

 

 

 

 

4

Mineral Chemistry and Calculation, Mineral Stability and Phase Diagrams; and Crystal chemistry

 

Coupled Substitution, Solid Solution, Exsolution, Graphical Representation of mineral Composition. Compositional Variation in Minerals, oxides & S.G calculation and. Formula calculation

Phase Diagrams, Definitions – System- Phase - Component

The Phase Rule, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics, Solid - Solid Reactions.

 

Atoms  : Protons  -Electrons -Neutrons

Bohr Atom : Planck, Electronegativity

Chemical Bonding, Ionic Bonds, Covalent Bonds, Metallic Bonds

Residual Bonds

 

 

 

 

 

 

7, **, 9

 

**  

mid semester break

 

 

 

 

5

Physical Properties of Minerals

 

Physical Properties of Minerals

Crystal Habit -  Individual Crystals and  Groups of Distinct Crystals

Cleavage, Parting, and Fracture

Hardness, Tenacity, Density (Specific Gravity)

Color, Streak , Luster -  Metallic and Non-metallic

Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Magnetism, Other Properties -  chatoyancy, asterism, piezoelectricity, taste.

Tables for Identification of Minerals

Luster - Metallic or Submetallic and  Nonmetallic.

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 and 11

 

 

 

 

6

Mineral Classification (Silicate and non-silicate (metallic minerals) and mineral naming methodology

 

How minerals are classified and naming

The Berzelian classification system for minerals (native element, oxide, sulphides etc.), Silicate Structures and Structural Formula

SiO4-4 tetrahedrons, e.g

 Nesosilicates  (Island Silicates)

Naming system

 

 

 

 

 

12 and 13

 

 

7

Techniques in mineral analysis instrumentation and Wet Analysis

 

Methods of Chemical Analysis, Wet Chemical Analyses

Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) 

X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometry, Electron Microprobe (EMP) Analysis.

 

 

 

 

 

14

**Week 8 – Mid-semester Break (1 week)