EBS 209 – Mineralogi

(Sesi 2005/06)

 

 Week

Topics and activities

Syllibus contents (Sub-topics)

Credit hours

1

11/07

Definition of mineral. Important of mineralogy study to other fields.  

Mineral – crystalline material

Definition of mineral, Important of mineral study to scientist and engineer. Mineralogy in other fields (Processing, mining, geophysics and materials)

Introduction to Earth Materials,

Introduction to symmetry, Symmetry Operations and Elements.

 

2

1

2

Crystallography – Symmetry operation

Rotational Symmetry, Mirror Symmetry, Center of Symmetry

Rotoinversion,Combinations of Symmetry Operations

 

3

3

Crystal morphology

Crystal Symmetry

Crystal Morphology and Crystal Symmetry

Steno’s Law : The angle between crystal faces 

Crystallographic Axes and Unit Cells

 

3

4

Axial Ratios, Parameters, Miller and Bravais Indices

Axial Ratios, Intercepts of Crystal Faces (Weiss Parameters)

Miller Indices and Miller Bravais Indices and Crystal Forms

 

3

 

5

 

 

Crystal Form, Zones, Crystal Habit

Crystal Forms, General Forms and Special Forms

Open Forms and Closed Forms, Understanding Miller Indices, Form Symbols, and Forms, Zones and Zone Symbols

Vectorial  and Continuous Properties of Crystals

Discontinuous Vectorial Properties, Crystal Habit

 

 

3

 

6

Crystal System

External Symmetry of Crystals, 32 Crystal Classes

Hermann-Mauguin (International) Symbols

The 32 Crystal Classes, e.g Triclinic System

Monoclinic System,Orthorhombic System, Tetragonal System etc.

 

3

7

Crystallographic Calculations

Crystallographic Calculations

3

Mid-term break (28/8 – 4/9/05)

 

8

 

 

X-Ray Crystallography

And mid test

 X-rays and the Production of X-rays

Continuous and Characteristic X-ray Spectra

X-ray Diffraction and Bragg's Law

The X-ray Powder Method

 

3

 

9

 

 

 

Physical Properties of Minerals I

Physical Properties of Minerals

Crystal Habit -  Individual Crystals and  Groups of Distinct Crystals

Cleavage, Parting, and Fracture

Hardness, Tenacity, Density (Specific Gravity)

Color, Streak , Luster -  Metallic and Non-metallic

 

 

3

 

10

 

Physical Properties of Minerals II

Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Magnetism, Other Properties -  chatoyancy, asterism, piezoelectricity, taste.

Tables for Identification of Minerals

Luster - Metallic or Submetallic and  Nonmetallic

 

 

2

 

 

 

11

 

 

 

 

 

Mineral Chemistry and Calculation

Minerals formation and  processes:

 

Composition of the Crust

Methods of Chemical Analysis, Wet Chemical Analyses

Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) 

X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometry, Electron Microprobe (EMP) Analysis, Compositional Variation in Minerals, oxides & S.G calculation etc

Coupled Substitution, Solid Solution, Exsolution, Graphical Representation of Mineral Composition

 

 

 

 

4

 

12

 

Mineral Classification (Silicate and non-siicate) and mineral  naming

 

How are minerals classified and named?  

The Berzelian classification system for minerals (native element, oxide, sulphides etc.), Silicate Structures and Structural Formula

SiO4-4 tetrahedrons, e.g

 Nesosilicates  (Island Silicates)

Naming system

 

 

 

3

 

 

13

 

Crystal Chemistry

 

 

Mineral Stability and Phase Diagrams

Atoms  : Protons  -Electrons -Neutrons

Bohr Atom : Planck, Electronegativity

Chemical Bonding, Ionic Bonds, Covalent Bonds, Metallic Bonds

Residual Bonds

Mineral formation  :Major processes and Condition

Precipitation from a fluid, Sublimation from a vapor

Crystallization from a liquid, Solid - Solid reactions,

  Geothermal Gradient.  

Phase Diagrams, Definitions – Syatem- Phase - Component

The Phase Rule, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics, Solid - Solid Reactions

 

1

 

 

 

 

2

14

23/10

Coarse revision Final test

Revision and assessment  (Final test – Tuesday, 11.00 am)

3

STUDY WEEKS AND FINAL EXAM (23/10 – 6/11/05)

Note : Subjected to amendments and modification. In case of holidays, forced cancellation etc, the effected classes will be replaced accordingly after mutual agreement between students-lecturer at agreed venue and time.     

         Lectures will be delivered in Bahasa Malaysia

       Date and time : Monday (11.00-12.00) Tuesday (11.00 – 1.00)

       Assigments : 4 Tutorial and laboratory, and 2 tests (30%) Final (70%)

       Reference and notes :   mineral.eng.usm.my, webmineral.com and CD